Henry Dee is a historian of empire, labour and migration in the 20th century. His current research focuses on African and Asian trade unions and the politics of free movement in the British empire during the interwar period. Building on research into the life of Central African-born Clements Kadalie and the Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union of Africa (ICU), he is now working on a comparative study between the ICU and the All-India Trade Union Congress (AITUC), looking into how both trade unions championed socialist internationalism and challenged heightening worker repression and anti-immigrant restrictions in the 1920s and 1930s.

Henry completed his PhD on the life of Clements Kadalie at the University of Edinburgh in 2020. He is currently turning this research into a monograph, and working on an edited volume of ICU primary sources together with David Johnson. He has taught on the global history of colonial fascism and the history of empire and violence at Queen Mary University London, as well as the history of African Christianity at the University of Edinburgh.


Edited Collection
David Johnson & Henry Dee (eds.), Selected Speeches, Essays and Poetry of the ICU (forthcoming).

Book chapters

‘Black immigrants, the ICU and the transnational politics of labour migration’ in L. van der Walt, N. Nieftagodien & T. Moloi (eds.), The ICU 100 Years On (forthcoming).

‘Clements Kadalie, the ICU and the transformation of communism in 1920s Southern Africa’, in David Featherstone, Christian Høgsbjerg & Alan Rice (eds.), Revolutionary Lives of the Black Atlantic (forthcoming).

‘Agnes Yewande Savage’, in E. Ewan, R. Pipes, J. Rendall & S. Reynolds, The New Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women (Edinburgh, 2018).


‘Central African immigrants, imperial citizenship and the politics of free movement in interwar South Africa’Journal of Southern African Studies, 45:6 (2019).

‘‘I am a bad native’: Masculinity and marriage in the biographies of Clements Kadalie’African Studies, 78:2 (2019).

'Nyasa Leaders, Christianity and African Internationalism in 1920s Johannesburg'South African Historical Journal, 70:2 (2018).


Clements Kadalie, trade unionism, migration and race in Southern Africa, 1918-1931 (PhD, University of Edinburgh, 2020).


Twitter: @h_p_dee


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