The information contained on this page is for background reading only. Please consult the relevant UFS Yearbook for detailed information relevant to your intended year of registration.

      GLGY1614 – Introduction to Geology
  • Prerequisites
    • Grade 12 Mathematics and Physical Sciences passed at performance level 5
    • Selected to study one of the Geology Programmes
  • Syllabus
    • Introduction to geology and planet Earth; Structural geology and plate tectonics; Mineralogy and crystallography; Petrology and classification of rocks; Weathering, erosion and deposition; Metamorphism; Mineral and energy resources; Groundwater resources; Geologic time; Sustainable development in relation to the Earth system; Geomorphology
    • Practical: Identification of 6 crystal systems using idealised crystal models; How to use a hand lens; Macroscopic characteristics of ~40 minerals (list to be supplied); Identification and description of common rocks
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Course notes; Recommended textbooks
    • Cairncross, B., McCarthy, T. (2015) Understanding Minerals & Crystals. Cape Town, Struik Nature.
  • Field work
    • 1 compulsory day-trip
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests; Class tests; Practical tests; Final examination

    GLGY1624 – General geology and South African stratigraphy

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY1614
  • Syllabus
    • Revision of the following topics: Structural geology, Plate tectonics, Mineralogy, Igneous rocks and processes, Sedimentary rocks and processes, Metamorphic rocks and processes; Introduction to palaeontology; Geological time: Principles of stratigraphy, Geological time scale, Relative and radiometric age determination; Stratigraphy of South Africa (from the Archean to the Holocene)
    • Practical: Macroscopic characteristics of ~40 minerals (list to be supplied); Identification of common rocks; Study of representative rock samples from different stratigraphic units in South Africa; Common South African fossils (1 practical); Basic map exercises (latitude / longitude, topographic maps, map scales, legends, magnetic north versus true north, basic geological maps)
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Course notes; Recommended textbooks
    • Cairncross, B., McCarthy, T. (2015) Understanding Minerals & Crystals. Cape Town, Struik Nature.
    • McCarthy, T., Rubidge, B. (2005) The Story of Earth and Life. Cape Town, Penguin Random House
  • Field work
    • 1 compulsory day-trip
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests; Practical tests; Class tests; Final examination

     

    GLGY2612 – Practical mineralogy

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY1614 and GLGY1624 passed with an average mark of 55%
  • Syllabus
    • Practical: The study of hand specimens (120 samples); Crystallography (idealised crystal models); Introduction to the petrographic microscope; The role of light in optical mineralogy; Snell’s Law; Optical properties of minerals; Sketching of observations; Determination of plagioclase composition by measurement of extinction angles; Microscopic study of the following minerals: Quartz, feldspar, calcite, biotite, muscovite, garnet, andalusite, sillimanite, kyanite, staurolite, olivine, amphiboles, pyroxenes, serpentine, chlorite, sodalite, leucite, nepheline
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Course notes
    • Cairncross, B., McCarthy, T. (2015) Understanding Minerals & Crystals. Cape Town, Struik Nature.
    • Deer, W., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J. (2013) An introduction to the rock-forming minerals. Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
    • Klein, C., Dutrow, B. (2007) Manual of Mineral Science. 23rd Edition. Wiley
  • Assessments
    • Class tests; Assignments; Mineral identification and crystallography test (Macroscopic mineralogy); Optical mineralogy theory and practical test (This is a continuous evaluation module in which no final examination will be written)

     

    GLGY2614 – Mineralogy

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY1614 and GLGY1624 passed with an average mark of 55%
  • Syllabus
    • Properties and chemical composition of minerals; Crystallography; Analytical techniques used in mineralogy (XRD, XRF, SEM, TEM, EMPA, SIMS, LA-ICP-MS); Systematic mineralogy; Gemstones
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; List of Mineral properties
    • Klein, C., Dutrow, B. (2007) Manual of Mineral Science. 23rd Edition. Wiley
  • Assessments
    • Class tests; Blackboard tests; Assignments & homework; Project; Semester tests (This is a continuous evaluation module in which no final examination will be written)

       

    GLGY2632 – Geological field techniques

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY1614 and GLGY1624 passed with an average mark of 55%
  • Syllabus
    • Practical: Basic map reading (Relief; scales; datums; coordinates & coordinate conversions; map projections; magnetic declination; elements of a geological map); Measurement of geological features (Using a GPS; compass; hammer; hand lens; magnet; measuring planes and lines) Sampling (Hand samples and thin sections; geochemistry; geochronology; taking oriented samples); Preparation for field work (Field work ethics; field work safety; equipment; defining the objectives; deciding where to go; determining your position; scale and regional context); Aerial photographs and Google Earth; Use of magnetometer, spectrometer and UV light; Grid mapping; Measuring profiles with a Jacob Staff and Abney level; construction of stratigraphic profiles; Plane table mapping; Compilation of a geological map; Report writing; Core logging
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Course notes
    • Coe, A.L. (2010) Geological Field Techniques. Wiley-Blackwell
  • Field work
    • Half-day per week throughout the course of the semester (Austen’s Post)
  • Assessments
    • Tasks and homework (production of maps, profiles and reports); Practical test; Theory test (This is a continuous evaluation module in which no final examination will be written)

     

    GLGY2652 – Geological structures and maps

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY1614 and GLGY1624 passed with an average mark of 55%
  • Syllabus
    • Practical: Interpretation of geological maps and structures; Basic techniques used to construct geological sections; Vertical exaggeration in geological sections; Interpretation of geological structures with the help of structural contours; Three point problems; Construction of geological sections without strike lines; Horizontal strata, dipping strata, unfonformities, folds and faults on geological maps and in geological sections; Basic trigonometry applied to geological maps and sections
  • Learning material
    • Study guide
    • Bennison, G.M., Olver, P.A., Moseley, K.A. (2013) An introduction to geological structures and maps. 8th edition. Routledge
  • Assessments
    • Homework; Semester tests (This is a continuous evaluation module in which no final examination will be written)

     

    GLGY2646 – Environmental geology and environmental management

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY1614 and GLGY1624 passed with an average mark of 55%
  • Syllabus
    • Introduction to Environmental Geology; The Earth; Structural Geology and Plate Tectonics; Mineralogy with a focus on environmental issues (e.g. acid mine drainage, silicosis, asbestosis, clay minerals etc.); Petrology with a focus on the engineering properties of rocks; weathering, erosion and pedogenesis; geomorphology with a focus on karst topography and the formation of sinkholes; geohydrological principles; groundwater (dewatering, water quality and pollution); introduction to environmental geochemistry; applications of geochemistry in mineral exploration; pollution; geological hazards; volcanism; slope stability; construction and the environment; waste management; an introduction to relevant legislation
    • Practical: Description and identification of rock-forming minerals, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; groundwater resources of South Africa; borehole pump tests and interpretation of groundwater quality results; visits to waste disposal sites in Bloemfontein
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; course notes; Powerpoint slides
    • Kehew, A.E. (2014) Geology for Engineers and Environmental Scientists. Third Edition. Pearson
  • Field work
    • 1 compulsory day-trip
  • Assessments
    • Class tests, Semester tests, Project, Practical tests, Final examination

     

    GLGY2626 – Sedimentology

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY1614 and GLGY1624 passed with an average mark of 55%
  • Syllabus
    • Physical characteristics, mineralogical composition and classification of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary structures; transport and deposition of sediments; diagenesis; the fossil record; depositional environments; sedimentary facies and basin analysis; stratigraphy; analysis of selected depositional basins in southern Africa; the reconstruction of Gondwana
    • Practical: Physical properties of sedimentary rocks; mineralogical properties of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary structures; identification of sedimentary rocks and structures; core logging of sedimentary successions; basic palaeontology; petrography of sedimentary rocks
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; course notes
    • Stow, D.A.V. (2005) Sedimentary rocks in the field: A colour guide. CRC Press
  • Field work
    • 1 compulsory day-trip
  • Assessments
    • Class tests, Semester tests, Practical exercises, Final examination

     

    GLGY2662 – Field School

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY1614 and GLGY1624 passed with an average mark of 55%
  • Syllabus
    • Practical: Stratigraphic relationships, occurrences and origin of rocks; development of fieldwork skills; using the geological compass; mapping of rocks in the field; profiles and traverses
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; excursion guide
  • Field work
    • 1 week field school
  • Assessments
    • Tests, field sketches, assignments (This is a continuous evaluation module in which no final examination will be written)

     

    GLGY3714 – Igneous Petrology

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY2612; GLGY2614
  • Syllabus
    • Melt formation and factors influencing melt composition; macroscopic features of igneous rocks and their use in classification; classification of igneous rocks with special emphasis on the IUGS-scheme; igneous textures and the stories they tell; the phase rule; the interpretation of T-X phase diagrams in binary systems under equilibrium conditions during heating & cooling; the interpretation of T-X phase diagrams in ternary systems under equilibrium conditions during heating & cooling; volcanism & intrusion; specific rocks, their occurrence and genesis: basalts, granites, andesites, alkaline igneous rocks, kimberlites & ultrapotassic igneous rocks, anorthosites, ultramafic igneous rocks; igneous differentiation and layered intrusions with special reference to the Bushveld Complex
    • Practical: A study of the more common igneous rocks in hand specimen and with the aid of the petrographic microscope
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Powerpoint slides; Self-assessment exercises
    • Winter, J.D. (2014) Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. 2nd edition. Pearson Education Limited, Essex
  • Field work
    • 1 compulsory day trip
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests, Practical assignments, Practical test, Final examination

     

    GLGY3724 – Economic Geology

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY2612; GLGY2614; GLGY2626
  • Syllabus
    • Igneous ore forming processes; magmatic-hydrothermal ore forming processes; hydrothermal ore forming processes; sedimentary and surficial ore forming processes; tectonics and ore-forming processes
    • Practical: Ore description and evaluation in hand specimen; core logging; ore reserve estimation
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Handouts
    • Robb, L. (2005) Introduction to ore-forming processes. Wiley
  • Field work
    • 1 compulsory visit to underground gold mine
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests; Practical work; Final examination

     

    GLGY3734 – Structural geology

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY2652; GLGY2626; GLGY2632; GLGY2662
  • Syllabus
    • Stress; strain; deformation; mechanical behaviour of rocks; foliation& cleavage; lineations; folds; shear zones; faults; joints; stress and strain equations and the Mohr diagram; tectonic settings; Anderson theory of faulting
    • Practical: Balanced cross sections; fold projections and block diagrams; stereonets; strain analysis; geological maps in structural analysis; remote sensing in structural analysis; description and classification of S and L tectonites; descriptionand classification of folds
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Study notes; Recommended titles
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests; Practical tests; Final examination

     

    GLGY3744 – Metamorphic Petrology

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY2626; GLGY3714
  • Syllabus
    • Introduction to metamorphism; metamorphic minerals; the metamorphic facies concept; the process of metasomatism; chemographic representation of metamorphism; the phase rule and its application to metamorphic rocks; metamorphic textures and what they tell us; tectonothermal history of metamorphic terranes; deformation of metamorphic rocks; metamorphism of specific protoliths (mafic igneous rocks, pelites, carbonates)
    • Practical: A study of the more common metamorphic rocks in hand specimen and with the aid of the petrographic microscope
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Powerpoint slides
    • Winter, J.D. (2014) Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. 2nd edition. Pearson Education Limited, Essex
  • Field work
    • Compulsory 2-day fieldtrip to the Vredefort structure
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests; Practical tests; Final examination

     

    GLGY3754 – Introduction to Geochemistry

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY2614
  • Syllabus
    • Formation of the elements and elemental abundances; chemical differentiation in the Solar System; meteorites and the “chondritic Earth”; geochemical classification of elements; Goldschmidt’s rules and partition coefficients; Igneous geochemistry (Isochron geochronology; radiogenic isotope differentiation; fractionation of O isotopes in magmas; classification using geochemistry; normalised multi-element plots (e.g. REE); deduction of plate tectonic settings using geochemistry); Sedimentary geochemistry (Chemostratigraphy; source identification; weathering; radiogenic damage dating); Metamorphic rocks (Thermobarometry; metasomatism; concordias and Ar-Ar dating)
    • Practical: Calculation of mineral formulae; CIPW and Niggli norms; geochronological calculations and applications; isotope evolution diagrams; plotting of geochemical data (binary, ternary and multi-component); research techniques and presentation of research results
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; List of recommended titles and additional reading placed on Blackboard
    • White, W.M. (2013) Geochemistry. Wiley-Blackwell
  • Assessments
    • Class tests & marked class work; Semester tests; Research project; Final examination

     

    GLGY3764 – Exploration geology

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY2614; GLGY3724 (co-requisite)
  • Syllabus
    • Overview of exploration geology; mineralogy of economic deposits; mineral deposit models; reconnaissance exploration; from prospect to feasibility; remote sensing; geophysical methods; exploration geochemistry; mineral exploration data management; evaluation techniques; project evaluation; case studies
    • Practical: Geological compass overview and exercises; recording of geological data in the field; using field data to generate a map; advanced cross-section generation; field mapping techniques; mapping of pseudo-outcrops
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Handouts
    • Moon, C. (2006) Introduction to Mineral Exploration. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing
  • Field work
    • Mapping of pseudo-outcrops on UFS campus (4 practical sessions)
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests; Mapping project; Practical assignments; Final examination

     

    GLGY3774 – Analytical geochemistry

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY2614
  • Syllabus
    • Sampling for geochemical purposes; sample preparation for mineralogical and geochemical techniques; interaction of EM radiation with matter; signals and noise; Overview of analytical methods (wet chemical techniques; infrared techniques; UV-VIS spectroscopy; X-ray techniques (wavelength and energy dispersive techniques); NAA; AAS and AES; In-situ techniques (EMPA, SEM, PIXE, MLA, TEM); Mass spectrometry (SIMS, SHRIMP, TIMS)); choosing the right analytical technique; quantification of analytical data (statistics, accuracy and precision, use of standards, calibrations and blanks etc.); the SAMREC code and its influence on analytical geochemistry
    • Practical: Spatial plots and identification of anomalies; gravimetric analysis to determine LOI; use of handheld XRF technologies; mass spectrometry applications and interpretation of data; Practical demonstrations: Sample preparation, electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry etc.
  • Learning material
    • Study guide; Powerpoint presentations
    • Skoog, D.A., Holler, F.J., Crouch, S.R. (2007) Principles of instrumental analysis. 6th Edition. Thomson Learning
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests; Practical tests; Reports; Final examination

     

    GLGY3784 – Environmental geochemistry

  • Prerequisites
    • GLGY2614; GLGY2646
  • Syllabus
    • Box models and geochemical cycles; laws of thermodynamics and Le Chatelier’s Principle; acids, bases, dissociation of water and pH; redox reactions; Eh-pH diagrams and mineral stability; the role of micro-organisms in redox reactions; C geochemistry and hydrocarbon pollution; radioactivity and the radiometric dating of water; CHONS isotopes and their applications (mass dependent); atmospheric geochemistry; clay minerals, asbestos, amorphous silica and zeolites; mineral – water interactions; ocean geochemistry; environmental impacts of fossil fuels and nuclear fuels; fracking; the Oklo natural reactor and radioactive waste disposal
    • Practical: Construction of Eh-pH diagrams; IUPAC naming; using isotopic data for dating and tracing; calculation of delta values; CO2 emission volume calculations; AMD calculations; water diagrams; chemical index of alteration (CIA) calculations
  • Learning material
    • Study guide, Handouts
    • Ryan, P. (2014) Environmental and low temperature geochemistry. Wiley-Blackwell
  • Assessments
    • Semester tests; Practical class work; Final examination

FACULTY CONTACT

Faculty Manager: Velaphi Makgwahla
T: + 27 51 401 3199
E: makgwahlamvt@ufs.ac.za

Marketing Manager: Elfrieda Lötter
T: +27 51 401 2531
E: lottere@ufs.ac.za

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