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           Think-Aloud-Pair-Problem Solving (TAPPS)
Essential Characteristics:   Pages:
Primary Mode Collaborative 259-263
Activity Focus Problem Solving
Duration of Activity Single Session
Online Transferability High
Description and Purpose

In 'Think-Aloud-Pair-Problem Solving' student pairs receive a series of problems as well as specific roles – problem solver and listener – that switch with each problem. The problem solver thinks aloud, talking through the steps of solving a problem, while the partner listens, following the steps, attempting to understand the reasoning behind the steps, and offering suggestions if there are missteps.
TAPPS places the emphasis on the problem-solving process rather than the product. Articulating one's own process and listening carefully to another's process helps students practice problem-solving skills and learn to diagnose errors in logic. Depending upon the problems used, it can also help increase student awareness of the range of successful (and unsuccessful) approaches to problem solving. TAPPS improves analytical skills by helping students to formalise ideas, rehearse concepts, understand the sequence of steps underlying their thinking, and identify errors in someone else's reasoning. Since it requires students to relate information to existing conceptual frameworks and to apply existing information to new situations, it can also promote deeper understanding. Finally, it can help foster metacognitive awareness, as it provides a structure for students to observe both their own and another's process of learning.

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